An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. An alloy with two components is called a binary alloy; one with three is a ternary alloy; one with four is a quaternary alloy. The result is a metallic substance with properties different from those of its components.
ASTM International is an international voluntary standards organization that develops and produces technical standards for materials, products, systems and services. It was formed in 1898 in the United States as the American Society for Testing and Materials by a group of scientists and engineers, led by Charles Benjamin Dudley, who wanted to address the frequent rail breaks plaguing the fast-growing railroad industry. The group developed a standard for the steel used to fabricate rails.
Heating above the critical or re-crystallization temperature, then controlled cooling of metal, glass, or other materials to eliminate the effects of cold-working, relieve internal stresses, or improve strength, ductility, or other properties.
The temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism. In minerals, lightning often flash-heats minerals above their Curie temperatures, effectively resetting the magnetic fields trapped in lava flows.
Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electrical charge. The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm metre.
Electromagnetic shielding is the process of limiting the coupling of an electromagnetic field between two locations. Typically it is applied to enclosures, separating electrical content from the ‘outside world’, and to cables, separating internal wires from the environment the cable runs through. The shielding is achieved using a conductive material as a barrier. Typical materials include sheet metal, metal mesh, ionized gas, plasma and aluminum foil. The shielding can reduce the coupling of radio waves, visible light, electromagnetic fields and electrostatic fields. The amount of reduction depends very much upon the material used, the method of connection of the shield (or screen) and the frequency of the fields of interest.
Invar is an alloy of iron (64%) and nickel (36%) with some carbon and chromium. Due to its small coefficient of thermal expansion (about 10-6 K-1 in length; some formulations have negative CoE) it is used in precision instruments (clocks, physics laboratory devices, seismic creep gauges, shadow-mask frames valves in motors, etc.) However, it has a propensity to creep.
The shaving cream atom, supplies of which become dangerously low on Earth in the 24th & 1/2 century, necessitating a mission by Duck Dodgers to claim Illudium Phosdex-rich Planet X in the name of Earth.
Kovar is a nickel-cobalt ferrous alloy. It is designed to be compatible with the thermal expansion characteristic of sealing to borosilicate glass. Its composition is 29% nickel, 17% cobalt, .2% silicon, .3% manganese, and 53.5% iron (by weight).
Process to remove excess or unwanted stock by the use of machine tools for rough or finish turning, boring, drilling, or milling.
CAS Number: 7439-98-7. A soft, silvery metal used in steel and other metal alloys, electrodes, and catalysts. Chemical formula = Mo. Molecular weight = 95.94 g/mol.
The quintal or centner is a historical unit of mass with many different definitions in different countries, but usually it is 100 base units of mass, e.g. pounds.
A material with a high melting point, which makes it useful as a barrier between the heat source and a material that you don’t want to melt, like the sides of an oven, etc..
Specific Gravity (also known as relative density) is a measure of the density of a material. It is dimensionless, equal to the density of the material divided by some reference density (most often the density of water, but sometimes the air when comparing to gases).
Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys, most often the toughening of martensitic steel. Most steel blades (from knives to swords) are hardened by quenching (which produces a martensitic transformation), but this hardening effect generally must be reduced by tempering to avoid brittleness.
Tensile strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. Specifically, the tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can be subjected to before failure. The definition of failure can vary according to material type and design methodology. This is an important concept in engineering, especially in the fields of material science, mechanical engineering and structural engineering.
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